Vator Splash comes to Oakland

Tue-Wed, May 6-7, 2014 | Jack London Square | Oakland, CA


Vator is bringing its popular event to Oakland and it's jam-packed with incredible content and speakers. Only a few more days to get your tickets and join hundreds of entrepreneurs, investors and civic leaders in Oakland, the Bay Area's emerging tech hub! Network, mingle with blue-ribbon VCs, learn from legendary founders.

The inaugural two-day event will be held at historic Jack London Square.

Previous Keynotes

As seen in...

About Splash

The premier entrepreneurship conference.



James Freeman

Founder & CEO, Blue Bottle Coffee

Danny Kennedy

Co-founder, Sungevity

Jeff Clavier

Founder, Managing Partner, SoftTech VC

MC Hammer

Celebrity, Musician

Benjamin Ling

Investment Partner, Khosla Ventures

Rob Goldman

Mobile Ad Monetization, Facebook

Rebecca Lynn

General Partner, Canvas Ventures

Sharon Wienbar

Partner, ScaleVenture Partners

Howard Hartenbaum

Partner, August Capital

Tony Conrad

Venture Partner, True Ventures

Alex Mittal

Founder & CEO, FundersClub

Caryn Voskuil

Manager, School Model Innovation, Rocketship Education

Tim Draper

Founder & Managing Director, DFJ

Yousuf Bhaijee

Head of Mobile User Acquisition, Disney Mobile

Jans Aasman

Founder & CEO, Franz, Inc

Jerome Boulon

Technical Director, Riot Games

Ravi Belani

Managing Partner, Alchemist Accelerator

Catherine Bracy

Director of Community Organizing, Code for America

Tim Brady

Founder & Partner, Image K12

Charlie Brock

CEO & President, Launch Tennessee

Gleb Budman

Founder & CEO, Backblaze

Jeff Burton

Exec. Dir., Skydeck Berkeley

Mary Ann Byrnes

C&M Partners

Carol Carpenter

CMO, ClearSlide

Shelby Clark

Founder, RelayRides

Jay Chong

Sr. Investment Director, Samsung Ventures

Wayee Chu

Associate Partner, NewSchools Venture Fund

Patrick Chung

General Partner, Xfund

Eric Colson

Chief Algorithms & Analytics Officer, Stitch Fix

Rob Coneybeer

Founder & Partner, Shasta Ventures

Jose Corona

Executive Director, Inner City Advisors

Drew Curtis

Founder & CEO,

Duncan Davidson

Managing Director, Bullpen Capital

Keval Desai

Partner, Interwest Partners

Salil Deshpande

Managing Director, Bain Capital Ventures

John Paul Ditty

Managing Director, KPMG

Noah Doyle

Managing Director, Javelin Venture Partners

Anne Dwane

Chief Business Officer, Chegg Inc.

Shane Dyer

Founder, Arraynet

Ashara Ekundayo

Co-Founder/Chief Creative Officer, ImpactHub Oakland

Karen Engel

Interim Director of Development, Peralta Community College District

Steven Fan

Head of Mobile Corporate Development, Yahoo!

Lyle Fong

Serial Entrepreneur & Angel Investor

Gregor Freund

Founder & CEO, Versal

Malay Gandhi

Chief Strategy Officer, Rockhealth

Ashu Garg

General Partner, Foundation Capital

Matt Garratt

Corp Development,

Mike Ghielmetti

Signature Development

Alastair Goldfisher

Editor, Venture Capital Journal and peHUB

Brandon Goldman

Co-Founder, FreshPay

Alex Gurevich

Partner, Javelin Venture Partners

Neal Hansch

Incubator Managing Director, Meltwater

Christine Herron

Director, Intel Capital

Crystal Huang

COO, Sfuncube

Ginger Imster

Executive Director, Arch Grants

Sean Jacobsohn

Venture Partner, Emergence Capital

Reena Jadhav

Founder, HealthBootcamp

Naveen Jain

Co-Founder & CMO, Immunity Project

JB (Mike) John-Baptiste

Angel Investor

Kelley Kahn

City of Oakland

Jed Katz

Managing Director,
Javelin Venture Partners

Meera Kaul

Investor, Entrepreneur, Chairperson, Meera Kaul Foundation

Emily Kirsch

CEO, SfunCube

Dave Krupinski

Co-Founder & CTO,

Manu Kumar

Founder and Chief Firestarter, K9 Ventures

Jeff Magnusson

Data Platform Architecture, Netflix

Jules Maltz

General Partner, IVP

Andre Marqui

Executive Dir, Lester Center, Haas/Berkeley

Kristin McDonnell

M33 Partners

Tom McGovern

Managing Director, IdeaLab

Gilad Meiri

Founder & CEO, Neura

Erik Moore

Founder & Managing Partner, Base Ventures

Conor Moore

National Co-Leader, KPMG Venture Practice

Alex Niehenke

Principal, Scale Venture Partners

Rick Moss

Partner, Better Ventures

Marcus Ogawa

Managing Partner, Quest Venture Partners

Kristina Omari

Angel Investor

Cindy Padnos

Founding Managing Director,
Illuminate Ventures

Jay Parekh

Business Development, Braintree

Marc Parrish

Parrish Advisors

Ali Partovi

Angel investor

Tom Patterson

Chairman and Founder, Tinker

Lynn Perkins

Co-founder and CEO, UrbanSitter

María Poblet

Executive Director, Just Cause

Brock Pierce

Co-founder & Chairman, GoCoin

Jason Portnoy

Partner, Subtraction Capital

Shauntel Poulson

Principal, NewSchools Venture Fund

Jean Quan

Mayor, City of Oakland

Chris Redlitz

Founder & General Partner, The Last Mile

Cynthia Ringo

Managing Partner, DBL Investors

Gary Rogers

Investor, Entrepreneur, Former CEO, Dreyer's Ice Cream

Bambi Francisco Roizen

Founder & CEO, Vator

Ezra Roizen

Founder, advsr

Heidi Roizen

Operating Partner, DFJ

Roger Royse

Founder, Royse Law Firm

Jim Scheinman

Founder & Managing Director, Maven Ventures

Robert Scoble

Startup Liaison Officer, Rackspace

Wes Selke

Managing Director, Better Ventures

Burt Smith

CIO, Franz, Inc

Shawnae Spencer

Fmr pro football player, Angel

Jared Simon

COO, HotelTonight

Josh Stein

Managing Director, DFJ

Wayne Sutton

Co-founder, Student Ventures

Cameron Teitelman

Founder & CEO, StartX

Gary Tsifrin

Founder & COO,

Stamos Venios

Managing Partner & Co-Founder, Data Elite

Sarah Wagener

VP Talent Acquisition & Diversity, Pandora

Eric Wilhelm


Greg Winner

CEO, GainSpan

Brian Wong

Founder & CEO, kiip

David Zilberman

Venture Partner, Comcast Ventures

Online Judges

Richard Chen

Angel Investor

​Patrick Lee

Co-founder, Hobo Labs

Alex Roizen

Managing Director, Vator Investment Club

Chris Surdi

Enterprise Sales Executive, Braintree

​ Jules Walker

Director, KPMG


8:30AM,,9:30AM,,Registration. Plus coffee/breakfast.

9:30AM,,9:35AM,,Opening remarks and introduction of special guest: Mayor Jean Quan,,Bambi Francisco (Founder & CEO, Vator)

9:35AM,,9:40AM,,Session 1 - Official Welcome,,Mayor Jean Quan,, City of Oakland

9:40AM,,10:10AM,,Session 2 - Tech Startups, the A's and Oakland's Bright Future,, MC Hammer (Celebrity, Entrepreneur) - Interviewer: Erik Moore (Base VC)


10:50AM,,11:35AM,,Session 4 - Global Splash Competition Presentations - First 5 Finalists,,Emcee: Robert Scoble (Rackspace) Judges: Manu Kumar (Founder & Chief Firestarter, K9 Ventures), Howard Hartenbaum (Partner, August Capital), Neal Hansch (Managing Director, Meltwater), Noah Doyle (Partner, Javelin Venture Partners), Ali Partovi (Serial Entrepreneur & Angel Investor)

11:35AM,,11:45AM,,Session 5 - Floating Point,,Presenter: Dave Krupinski (Co-founder,

11:45AM,,12:15PM,,Session 5 - The FUTURE OF Marketplaces. A look at challenges and investment opportunities across this fast-growing market segment from leading founders/CEOs leading the charge and investors making big bets.,,Moderator: Steven Loeb (VatorNews) Panelists: Howard Hartenbaum (Partner, August Capital), Lynn Perkins (Founder & CEO, UrbanSitter), Shelby Clark (Founder, RelayRides), Jared Simon (COO, HotelTonight)


1:25PM,,1:30PM,,Welcome back to the program,,Emcee: Ezra Roizen (Ackrell Capital)

1:30PM,,2:00PM,,Session 6 - New VC models & cool startups; Draper University and Six Californias,,Fireside Chat with Tim Draper (Founder, DFJ, Draper University; Interviewer: Heidi Roizen (Partner, DFJ)

2:00PM,,2:45PM,,Session 7 - OakTown/East Bay Startup Competition Presentations - Final 5 Finalists,,Emcee: Wayne Sutton (Founder, PitchTo). Welcome remarks by Oaktown competition sponsor Oakland Forward/Bryan Parker (Port of Oakland Commissioner). Judges: Rick Moss (Partner, Better Ventures), Erik Moore (Base VC), Eric Wilhelm (Founder & CEO, Instructables), JB (Mike) John-Baptiste (Angel Investor)

2:45PM,,3:15PM,,Session 8 - The FUTURE OF Mobile Monetization. A look at challenges and investment opportunities across this fast-growing market segment from leading founders/CEOs leading the charge and investors making big bets.,,Moderator: Tom Patterson (Serial entrepreneur). Panelists: Brian Wong (Founder & CEO, Kiip), Ashu Garg (Partner, Foundation Capital), Yousuf Bhanjee (Disney/Zynga), Rob Goldman (Facebook), Steven Fan (Yahoo)

3:15PM,,3:25PM,,--Snack Break--,,

3:25PM,,3:55PM,,Session 9 -The FUTURE OF EdTech: A look at challenges and investment opportunities across this fast-growing market segment from leading founders/CEOs leading the charge and investors making big bets.,,Moderator: Faith Merino (VatorNews). Panelists: Tim Brady (Founder & Partner, Imagine K12), Wayee Chu (Angel investor), Shauntel Poulson (NewSchools), Gregor Freund (Founder & CEO, Versal), Caryn Voskuil (Manager, school model innovation, Rocketship Education)

3:55PM,,4:40PM,,Session 10 - Global Splash Competition Presentations - Second 5 Finalists,,Emcee: Robert Scoble (Rackspace) Judges: Jeff Clavier (SoftTech VC), Rob Goldman (Facebook), Lyle Fong (East Bay Serial Entrepreneur, Founder Lithium Technologies), Patrick Chung (NEA), Patrick Lee (East Bay Serial Entrepreneur, Founder Rotten Tomatoes)

5:30PM,, ,,VIP Dinner Party - Centouno Restaurant, 101 Broadway - Tickets available separately

10:10AM,,10:30AM,,Session 1 - Splash Talk - Founders Lessons Learned,,Presenter: Ali Partovi (Serial entrepreneur, Angel investor)

10:30AM,,11:00AM,,Session 2 - Singles vs. Home Runs - Business Development, M&A & Next Round,,Presenter: Ezra Roizen (Ackrell Capital)


11:10AM,,11:40AM,,Session 3 - The Renaissance of Corporate VCs. Big funds are forming under corporate umbrellas underscoring a resurgence last seen in the late 90s. What's going on and how can entrepreneurs benefit,,Moderator: Kristina Omari (Angel investor). Panelists: David Zilberman (Venture Partner, Comcast Ventures), Matt Garratt (Director of Corporate Development & Investments, Salesforce), Jay Chong (Sr. Investment Director, Samsung Ventures)

11:40AM,,12:10PM,,Session 4 - When and How to Scale Your Startup,,Presenter: Sharon Wienbar (Partner, Scale Venture Partners)


1:40PM,,2:10PM,,Session 5 - Startup Success Secrets - A Female Perspective. What does it take to be a female entrepreneur? Challenges in hiring, fundraising, differences in management styles, leadership development, networking and more.,,Moderator: Reena Jadhav. Panelists: Carol Carpenter (Chief Marketing Officer, ClearSlide), Mary Ann Byrnes (C&M Partners), Kristin McDonnell (M33 Partners), Anne Dwane (Chief Business Officer, Chegg) , Meera Kaul (Meera Kaul Foundation, Tech founder, Angel Investor)

2:10PM,,2:40PM,,Session 6 - Accelerator Nation! It started with Y Combinator, then TechStars. Now accelerators are everywhere. What's working and what's not and what are the new strategies, if any?,,Moderator: Lev Mass (XSeed Capital). Panelists: Cameron Teitelman (Founder, StartX), Crystal Huang (COO, Sfuncube), Ravi Belani (Managing Dir., Alchemist Accelerator),
Jeff Burton (Exec. Dir., Skydeck Berkeley)

2:40PM,,3:10PM,,Session 7 - The Early-Stage Investor Landscape. How is the landscape changing for early-stage investors? Given the influx of seed-stage financing and the dearth of Series A investments, are there opportunities for investors to make money? If so, what are they?,,

Moderator: Alastair Goldfisher (Thomson Reuters). Panelists: Jeff Clavier (Founder & Partner, SoftTech VC), Christine Herron (Partner, Intel Capital), Salil Deshpande (Managing Director, Bain Capital Ventures), Patrick Chung (Partner, NEA)

5:30PM,, ,,VIP Dinner Party - Centouno Restaurant, 101 Broadway - Tickets available separately,,

8:30AM,,9:30AM,,Registration. Plus coffee/breakfast.,,

9:30AM,,9:40AM,,Opening Remarks,,Bambi Francisco (Founder & CEO, Vator), joined by Gary Rogers (Fmr CEO of Dreyer's)

9:40AM,,10:10AM,,Session 1 - "Coffee Talk",,Fireside Chat with James Freeman (Founder & CEO, Blue Bottle Coffee); Interviewer: Tony Conrad (Partner, True Ventures)

10:10AM,,10:40AM,,Session 2 - City/State-focused Accelerator Programs- Continuing with our theme of building tech ecosystems, we'll take a look at best practices across accelerator programs with an eye toward creating jobs in their respecitve local economies.,,Moderator: Bambi Francisco. Panelists: Charlie Brock (CEO & President, Launch Tennessee), Chris Redlitz (Founder, The Last Mile), Ginger Imster (Executive Director, Arch Grants)


10:50AM,,11:35AM,,Session 3 - Global Splash Competition Presentations - Third set of 5 Finalists,,Emcee: Robert Scoble (Rackspace); Judges: Tom McGovern (Managing Dir, IdeaLab), Conor Moore (Partner, KPMG), Jay Parekh (Braintree), Marcus Ogawa (Qwest Venture Partners), Cindy Padnos (Founder & Partner, Illuminate Ventures)

11:35AM,,11:45AM,,Session 4 - Floating Point - The FUTURE of Internet of Things,,Greg Winner (CEO, GainSpan)

11:45AM,,12:15PM,,Session 5 -THE FUTURE OF the Internet of Things. A look at challenges and investment opportunities across this fast-growing market segment from leading data scientists from the major tech companies.,,Moderator: Steve Loeb (VatorNews). Panelists: Rob Coneybeer (Founder & Managing Partner, Shasta Ventures), Shane Dyer (Founder & CEO, Arrayent), Greg Winner (CEO, GainSpan), Gilad Meiri (Founder & CEO, Neura)

12:15PM,,1:25PM,,--Lunch--,,(Selection Committee judges deliberation from 12:30 pm to 12:50 pm in the Speaker Lounge)

1:30PM,,1:40PM,,Session 6 - Building an Ice Cream Empire in Oakland,,Gary Rogers (Investor, Entrepreneur, Former CEO, Dreyer's Ice Cream)

1:40PM,,2:10PM,,Session 7 -THE FUTURE OF Solar,,Danny Kennedy (Co-founder & President, Sungevity)

2:10PM,,2:40PM,,Session 8 -THE FUTURE OF Bitcoin. A look at challenges and investment opportunities across this fast-growing market segment from leading founders/CEOs and the investors making big bets in this space.,,Moderator: Bryan Parker (Port Commissioner of Oakland). Panelists: Brock Pierce (Co-founder & Chairman, GoCoin), Brandon Goldman, (Co-Founder, FreshPay), Will Wheeler (CEO,expresscoin), Ryan Singer (CryptoCorp) 

2:40PM,,3:10PM,,Session 9 - THE FUTURE OF Healthtech and the Quantified Self. A look at challenges and investment opportunities across this fast-growing market segment from leading VCs making big bets.,,Moderator: Faith Merino (VatorNews). Panelists: Malay Gandhi (Chief Strategy Officer, Rock Health), Rebecca Lynn (Partner, Morgenthaler Ventures), Andre Marqui (Executive Dir, Lester Center, Haas/Berkeley), Keval Desai (General Partner, Interwest)

3:10PM,,3:25PM,,--Snack Break--,,

3:25PM,,3:55PM,,Session 10 - THE FUTURE OF Big Data. A look at challenges and investment opportunities across this fast-growing market segment from leading data scientists from the major tech companies.,,Moderator: Stamos Venios (Co-founder, Data Elite). Panelists: Marc Parrish (Parrish Advisors), Jerome Boulon (Riot Games), (Pandora), Jeff Magnusson (Data Platform Architecture, Netflix), Burt Smith (Franz, Inc), Eric Colson (Chief Algorithms & Analytics Officer, Stitch Fix)

3:55PM,,4:40PM,,Session 11 - Top 5 Startup Finalist Showdown,,Emcee: Robert Scoble. Panelists: Josh Stein (Partner, DFJ), Jed Katz (Partner, Javelin Venture Partners), Ben Ling (Khosla Ventures)

4:40PM,,5:00PM,,--Break--,,(Selection committee deliberation in Speaker Lounge)

5:00PM,,5:30PM,,Awards ceremony for Top Winner, People's Choice and OakTech Winner

6:00PM,, ,,VIP Winner's Dinner - Bocanova, 55 Webster St. - Tickets available separately,,

10:10AM,,10:30AM,,Session 1 - Splash Talk - Founders Lessons Learned,,Presenter: Lyle Fong (Serial Entrepreneur, Angel investor)

10:30AM,,11:00AM,,Session 2 - How to raise a round (VC, Bank, Crowdfunding),,Moderator: Roger Royse (Royse Law Firm). Panelists: Alex Gurevich (Partner, Javelin Venture Partners), Ezra Roizen (Vator), Alex Mittal (Founder & CEO, FundersClub)


11:10AM,,11:40AM,,Session 3 - Go-to-Market for Startups. Tips, challenges and metrics to develop your business partners. Learn 4 types of business development: referral partnerships, production integrations, corporate development and resellers.,,Presenter: Sean Jacobsohn (Partner, Emergence Capital)

11:40AM,,12:10PM,,Session 4 - The Virtues of Bootstrapping,,Moderator: Naveen Jain (Founder, Immunity Project). Panelists: Gleb Budman (Founder & CEO, Backblaze), Drew Curtis (Founder & CEO, Fark), Gary Tsifrin (Founder & CEO,


1:40PM,,2:10PM,,Session 5 - The Explosion of Micro VCs (sub $50M fund). They come in all shapes and sizes and while they sometimes co-invest with one another, many have different strategies. Meet some of the micro-VCs and learn about which strategies are working best.,,Moderator: Alastair Goldfisher (Thomson Reuters). Panelists: Marcus Ogawa (Founder & Partner, Quest Venture Partners), Erik Moore (Founder & Partner, Base VC), Jim Schienman (Founder & Partner, Maven), Jason Portnoy (Founder & Partner, Subtraction Capital)

2:10PM,,2:40PM,,Session 6 - The VC Landscape in a Post-Seed World.,,Presenter: Duncan Davidson (Partner, Bullpen)

2:40PM,,3:10PM,,Session 7 - Where's the Boom? There's a boom in seed-stage investing and a boom in IPO exits. Does that mean there's a boom in the growth-stages of investing too? How's today's seemingly frothy environment changing the landscape for these investors?,,Panelists: Jules Maltz (IVP), JP Ditty (Partner, KPMG), Alex Niehenke (Scale Venture Partners)


3:20PM,,4:40PM,,Session 8 - Envisioning a Vibrant and Inclusive Oakland Tech Ecosystem. Hosted by the Kapor Center for Social Impact, 2.Oakland & Live Work Oakland, Bay Area leaders from a cross-section of sectors have been invited look forward and share their respective organization's "State of the Future City" address in a session that delves into key questions: What kind of tech ecosystem would be ideal for Oakland? What will it take to get there in the next four years? And what special characteristics of our city do we want to maintain in the process?,,Hosts: Cedric Brown (Kapor Center for Social Impact), Karen Wertman (Vator Splash Oakland & 2.Oakland), Susan Mernit (Live Work Oakland, Oakland Local). Speakers: Sarah Wagener (VP of Talent Acquisition, Pandora), Maria Poblet (Executive Director, Causa Justa), Mike Ghielmetti (President, Signature Development), Kelley Kahn (Special Projects Director,City of Oakland), Ashara Ekundayo (Chief Creative Officer, ImpactHub Oakland), Catherine Bracy (Director of Organizing, Code for America), Karen Engel (Interim Director of Development, Peralta Community College District), Jose Corona (CEO, Inner City Advisors)

4:40PM,,5:00PM,,--Break--,,(Selection committee deliberation in Speaker Lounge)

5:00PM,,5:30PM,,Awards ceremony for Top Winner, People's Choice and OakTech Winner,,

6:00PM,,8:00PM,,Oakland Forward VIP Winners' Dinner at Bocanova (55 Webster St.) (Advance ticket purchase online),,

7:30PM,,10:00PM,,VATOR SPLASH AFTER PARTY! (Advanced ticket purchase online). Food from Centouno 101 Taverna, fabulous wine tastings from Oakland vineyards Dashe Cellars, Stage Left Cellars & Paradox Wines and live entertainment form Sungevity's award-winning R & B band, the killaWatts - 2013 winners of the national solar "Battle of the Bands".

Day 1 (May 6) - Main Stage

Day 1 (May 6) - Palm Tree Stage

Day 2 (May 7) - Main Stage

Day 2 (May 7) - Palm Tree Stage

Vator Partners

Reach hundreds of influencers within the entrepreneurship community.


Reach hundreds of influencers in the high-tech entrepreneur community.

  • Be in front of entrepreneurs leading innovation, disrupting industries and redefining the economy.
  • Be in front of emerging startups while they’re young.
  • Get exposure online well before the event during the online competition as more than 100 startups compete for the top 10 spots.
  • Get online across the competition and event pages, in newsletters and emails, and at the event through banners, tables, etc.

To learn more about sponsorship opportunities, email

Partners that have attended Vator Splash events

The Venue

Jack London Square

Brilliantly simple to get here from just about anywhere!

55 Harrison Street, Oakland, CA

Getting there




VATOR SPLASH EVENT volunteers. Day of.

Click here to volunteer.

EVENT volunteers. Day of.

  • Speaker Hosts
  • Finalists Hosts
  • Stage Hands
  • Ushers
  • Sponsor and Demo Host
  • Stage Manager
  • Social Media


  1. Team call meeting 10 days to 2 weeks prior
  2. Day-before-event meeting at venue (1 hour) to prep, or as early as 6:00 am, day of event
  3. Arrival at event
  4. Venue visit (1 month prior – for Usher Lead, Stage Manager, Speaker Host)

PRE-PRODUCTION volunteers. Up to 5 months prior.

  • Startup Scout Master
  • Startup & Finalist Host
  • Director of Investor Relations
  • Accelerator Partner Relations
  • Media Partner Relations
  • Social Media
  • Press Relations


Be able to start several months prior to the event. Must have solid writing, communication skills.

For those interested in working with startups.

Details about pre-production roles:

Startup Scout Master, Startup Finalist Host: This person loves to work with startups and would love to learn more about them. Your job will be to identify promising startups, interact with them and help prep finalists to get on stage. This job is great for someone who wants to work at a startup or invest in them.

Director of Investor Relations, Accelerator Partner Relations: This person wants to interact with venture capitalists and angel investors and corporate investors – in short – investors. You will engage with them around 5 to 6 weeks prior to the event. Your job is to get to know them and their investments and to help them to evaluate the startups in the finalist competition. The Accelerator Partner Relations person will communicate with accelerators to engage their startups in the event and competition.

Social Media and Press: This person(s) is proficient at putting press releases together and posting social media updates on Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn and Vator. This person has excellent writing skills and is fluent in English. This person has comfort and familiarity with social networks. This person must spend at least 20 minutes daily posting for Vator one month prior to the event about the event speakers, relevant news and throughout the day of event. Press person should work on at least one press release.

Also contact: (with any questions) or